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Showing posts from March, 2018


Microcontrollers' march in electronic engineering is not too old for much of the day. Its practice has started just a few decades ago. Processes and Process Control Systems of the old days, there were mechanical engineering (Mechanical)And which was expensive and less subtle. To overcome these difficulties, more and more precise and cheap control methods become the demand of the era. In order to overcome this demand, the researchers give the method of electronic methods instead of mechanical methods in the control method. Initially the design of the physical control systems was not very convenient. Because each separate process had to design different electrical circuits and these were large and extremely complex. Therefore, the microcontroller control system is gradually improved according to the needs of the era. The large advantage of the microcontroller control system is that the circuit design is straightforward and the same microcontrolle…

Getting Started with Arduino

The stunning age of Arduino !!!  Now what is Ardunio?? (part 1) Today "Arduino Learn To Create Exclusive Project" will be discussed about Open Source Hardware and Arduino in the first phase of the Full Chain Course.

Zener Diode Breakdown

Zener Diode Breakdown
Electrical break down of any material (say metal, conductor, semiconductor or even insulator) can occur due to two different phenomena. Those two phenomena are :

1) Zener breakdown and  2) Avalanche breakdown
This is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials. It is a form of electric current multiplication that can allow very large currents within materials which are otherwise good insulators.

Zener Diodes

Zener Diodes
A normal p-n junction diode allows electric current only one direction in forward biased condition. A forward biased p-n junction diode offers very small resistance to the electric current. But there's no current flows in reversed bias. Zener diodes acts like normal p-n junction diodes under forward biased condition. It is mainly a special type of diode made specifically for making a breakdown in the circuit if reverse biased voltage is applied. It named after the name of it's inventor Clearance Zener.

Remembering the "Grand Design" of Stephen Hawking:-

Remembering the "Grand Design" of Stephen Hawking:-

The most fundamental question of human being on the earth is probably with its existence: where do we come from, where will we go, what is the significance of our lives? People have found answers to this question from the beginning of civilization.From ancient Greece to Hinduism, Islam and Christianity, the Chinese and Japanese religious leaders, the people of Inca and Mayan civilization - everyone came in their own way as interpretation of man and world-creativity. Yet in Africa or Amazon forest, different tribes will be found who think of different trees and the moon and sun their God, and they are ready to give their life for this! 

Stephen Hawking : Brightest Star Of Modern Cosmology

The lightening life of Stephen Hawking :

Stephen Hawking [CH, CBE, FRS, PhD: Stephen William Hawking; born January 8, 1942] is a well-known English theoretical physicist, Cosmologist and mathematician known to all around the world. Hawking retired on October 1, 2009, as the Lucasian professor of the University of Cambridge (Sir Isaac Newton was also in that position). He is also a resident of Cambridge Ganoville and Kayes College. In spite of being extremely physically handicapped and persistently flawlessly for ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or Lou Geehrig Disease - a type of motor neurone disease) for many years he has been successfully running his research work. He defied doctors expectations, living for over half a century after he was diagnosed in 1963, at the age of 21.

Transistor as a Switch

Transistor as a Switch
 Because a transistor’s collector current is proportionally limited by its base current, it can be used as a sort of current-controlled switch. A relatively small flow of electrons sent through the base of the transistor to control a much larger flow of electrons through the collector.

Journey of Archimedes Palimpsest

Journey of Archimedes Palimpsest Occasionally there are some life in the world, like the brightness of light. Their light guides people to eternity; The deeper the light can be seen as impressed. Archimedes of Siracus (287-221 BC) is one of the largest light sources in the world known to us. Archimedes is said to be one of the three best mathematicians ever (the other two are Carl Friedrich Gauss and Isaac Newton). After shedding the crown of the king in the water bath in the bath, a nude scientist is running in an ecstatic 'Eureka' or 'I have received' - Many of us have come to imagine a picture that says 'Archimedes'. Many people think that the truth has happened, even though the origin of this story is many years after his death! What is the personal life of Archimedes is not known very much. There are only some stories that are made in the face, which have not been certified even today.

Graphical analysis of CE amplifier (part 2)

The graph figure of the CE amplifier is

P-N Junction Diode

P-N Junction Diode
A p-n junction diode is two-terminal semiconductor device, which allows the electric current to flow in only one direction and blocks the electric current in reverse direction. If the diode is forward biased, it allows the electric current flow. On the other hand, if the diode is reverse biased, it blocks the electric current flow. P-N junction semiconductor diode is also called as p-n junction semiconductor device.

Graphical analysis of CE amplifier (part 1 at a glance)

Graphical analysis of CE amplifier
1.Basic concept of load line At first we have to find out the operating pt or Q pt of the amplifier about which imput signal of the amplifier is applied.
Applying KVL in out put we get The above equation represent a equation of straight line having slope -1/Rc.This line is called load line.And the intersection points of the out put characterestics curve to the straight line called Q point.

To draw the load line we have to find out the cut point As we know for x axis y=0 and for Y axis x=0 so,
And now we can draw the load line in this way So this called load line.


HE WAS BORN DURING A LIGHTNING STORM Nikola Tesla was born around midnight, between July 9 and July 10, 1856 during a fierce lightning storm. According to family legend, midway through the birth, the midwife wrung her hands and declared the lightning a bad omen. This child will be a child of darkness, she said, to which his mother replied: “No. He will be a child of light.”

Resistor Basics

Resistor Basics

The resistor is a passive electrical component to create resistance in the flow of electric current. In almost all electrical networks and electronic circuits they can be found.

 In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.

Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device that amplifies or switchesthe flow of current. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal.

Arduino LED Chaser

Arduino LED Chaser
With Arduino it's easy to make a basic LED Chaser Lights having 12 LEDs connected Digital Output pins of Arduino from D2 to D13. The setup is very simple. All you have to do is to place the Arduino in the breadboard first.

CD 4017 - Decade Counter IC

CD 4017 - Decade Counter IC
The CD4017 is  a CMOS Decade counter IC. CD4017 is used for low range (The supply voltage of this IC is 3V to 15V) counting applications. It can count from 0 to 10 (as the name suggests).

555 Timer IC Modes

~: 555 Timer IC Modes :~

The 555 timer has three main modes: Bistable, Monostable, and Astable. In "Monostable" mode only one state is stable and the“Bistable” signifies two stable states—high and low. While "AstableCircuit has no stable state - hence the name "Astable".

1. Monostable Mode :-

In the Monostable Mode, it has only one stable state. If an activating pulse is applied to the input of the circuit through a push button, then the capacitor gets charge and the timer circuit extends a high pulse, then it remains high until capacitor totally discharges. The best application of a monostable is to introduce a time delay in to a system. As well as frequency divider, capacitance measurement and pulse-width modulation (PWM) and many more.

2. Bistable Mode :-

In the Bistable Mode, the IC 555 acts as a flip-flop as it has two stable states. It flip to one state when triggered, then flop back to the other state when reset. The circuit is stable in both states.…

Pin Configuration of 555 Timer IC

: Pin Configuration of 555 Timer IC :

   The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element.

Ground Pin - Pin-1

A GND pin is used to supply a zero voltage to the IC.

Trigger Pin - Pin-2

A trigger pin is used to convert the Flip-Flop from set to RST (reset). The output of the timer depends on  the external trigger pulse that is applied to the trigger pin.

Output Pin- Pin-3

A output pin shows the Output

Reset Pin - Pin-4

When the negative pulse is applied to the RST pin it reset the ongoing process. False triggering can be neglected by connecting to VCC.

Control Voltage Pin - Pin-5

The control voltage pin used to control the pulse width of the output waveform and also the levels of threshold and trigger. When an external voltage is applied to this pin, then the output waveform will be modulated.

Threshold Pin - Pin-6

When the voltage…